GOOD MORNING – TODAY IS WEDNESDAY, July 27, the 209th day of 2016 with 157 to follow. Sunrise in the Boston area is @ 5:31 and sunset is @ 8:10. The moon is waning. The morning stars are stars are Mars, Mercury, Neptune, Saturn, Uranus & Venus. The evening stars are Jupiter & Mars.
ON THIS DAY IN: 1214 – At the Battle of Bouvines in France, Philip Augustus of France defeated John of England.
1245 – Frederick II was deposed by a council at Lyons after they found him guilty of sacrilege.
1663 – The British Parliament passed a second Navigation Act, which required all goods bound for the colonies be sent in British ships from British ports.
1689 – Government forces defeated the Scottish Jacobites at the Battle of Killiecrankie.
1694 – The Bank of England received a royal charter as a commercial institution.
1775 – Benjamin Rush began his service as the first Surgeon General of the Continental Army.
1784 – “Courier De L’Amerique” became the first French newspaper to be published in the United States. It was printed in Philadelphia, PA.
1777 – The marquis of Lafayette arrived in New England to help the rebellious American colonists fight the British.
1778 – The British and French fleets fought to a standoff in the first Battle of Ushant.
1789 – The Department of Foreign Affairs was established by the U.S. Congress. The agency was later known as the Department of State.
1804 – The 12th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution was ratified. With the amendment Electors were directed to vote for a President and for a Vice-President rather than for two choices for President.
1866 – Cyrus Field successfully completed the Atlantic Cable. It was an underwater telegraph from North America to Europe.
1909 – Orville Wright set a record for the longest airplane flight. He was testing the first Army airplane and kept it in the air for 1 hour 12 minutes and 40 seconds.
1914 – British troops invaded the streets of Dublin, Ireland, and began to disarm Irish rebels.
1918 – The Socony 200 was launched. It was the first concrete barge and was used to carry oil.
1921 – Canadian biochemist Frederick Banting and associates announced the discovery of the hormone insulin.
1940 – Bugs Bunny made his official debut in the Warner Bros. animated cartoon “A Wild Hare.”
1944 – U.S. troops completed the liberation of Guam.
1947 – The World Water Ski Organization was founded in Geneva, Switzerland.
1953 – The armistice agreement that ended the Korean War was signed at Panmunjon, Korea.
1955 – The Allied occupation of Austria ended.
1964 – U.S. President Lyndon Johnson sent an additional 5,000 advisers to South Vietnam.
1965 – In the U.S., the Federal Cigarette Labeling and Advertising Act was signed into law. The law required health warnings on all cigarette packages.
1967 – U.S. President Johnson appointed the Kerner Commission to assess the causes of the violence in the wake of urban rioting.
1974 – NBC-TV took “Dinah’s Place” off of its daytime programming roster.
1974 – The U.S. Congress asked for impeachment procedures against President Richard Nixon.
1980 – The deposed shah of Iran, Muhammad Riza Pahlavi, died in a hospital near Cairo, Egypt.
1984 – Pete Rose passed Ty Cobb’s record for most singles in a career when he got his 3,503rd base hit.
1992 – Boston Celtics star Reggie Lewis died after collapsing on a Brandeis University basketball court during practice. He was 27 years old.
1993 – IBM’s new chairman, Louis V. Gerstner, Jr., announced an $8.9 billion plan to cut the company’s costs.
1995 – The Korean War Veterans Memorial was dedicated in Washington, DC, by U.S. President Clinton and South Korean President Kim Young-sam.
1999 – The U.S. space shuttle Discovery completed a five-day mission commanded by Air Force Col. Eileen Collins. It was the first shuttle mission to be commanded by a woman.
2001 – The ribbon cutting ceremony was held for American Airlines Center in Dallas, TX. The event set two new world records, one for the 3 mile long ribbon and one for the 2,000 people that cut it.
2003 – It was reported by the BBC (British Broadcasting Corp.) that there was no monster in Loch Ness. The investigation used 600 separate sonar beams and satellite navigation technology to trawl the loch. Reports of sightings of the “Loch Ness Monster” began in the 6th century.
2006 – Intel Corp introduced its Core 2 Duo microprocessors.