GOOD MORNING – TODAY IS MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 15, the 256th day of 2014 with 107 to follow. Sunrise in the Boston area is @ 6:2 and sunset is @ 6:5. The moon is waning. The morning stars are stars are Jupiter, Uranus & Venus. The evening stars are Mars, Mercury, Neptune & Saturn.
ON THIS DAY IN: 1588 – The Spanish Armada, which attempted to invade England, was destroyed by a British fleet.
1776 – British forces occupied New York City during the American Revolution.
1784 – First ascent in a hydrogen balloon was achieved by Italian Vincenzo Lunardi in England.
1789 – U.S. Department of Foreign Affairs was renamed the Department of State.
1821 – Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and El Salvador proclaimed independence.
1830 – The first person was killed by a train: statesman William Huskisson at the opening of the Liverpool and Manchester Railway.
1858 – The Butterfield Overland Mail Company began delivering mail from St. Louis to San Francisco.
1862 – Confederate troops captured Harpers Ferry in Maryland.
1916 – Tanks were used for the first time in warfare history during the Battle of Somme by the British against the Germans.
1917 – Russia was proclaimed a republic by Alexander Kerensky, the head of a provisional government.
1923 – Oklahoma was placed under martial law in response to terrorist activity by the Ku Klux Klan (KKK).
1928 – Scottish bacteriologist Alexander Fleming accidentally discovered the antibiotic effects of penicillin. For his discovery, Fleming was knighted by King George VI of England in 1944 and shared the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1945.
1935 – The Nuremberg Laws were enacted, depriving German Jews of their citizenship and civil rights — and making the swastika the official symbol of Nazi Germany.
1940 – The Luftwaffe sustained heavy losses inflicted by the Royal Air Force during the Battle of Britain in World War II. This turning of the tides forced Adolf Hitler to abandon his plans to invade Britain.
1950 – In the Korean conflict, the U.S.-led United Nations forces landed at Inchon in the south and began their drive toward Seoul.
1963 – An 11-year-old and three 14-year-old children were killed when a dynamite bomb exploded during Sunday services at the all-black 16th Street Baptist Church in Birmingham, Alabama. Robert Chambliss, the prime suspect in the bombing, was not brought to justice until 1977.
1965 – “I Spy” has TV premiere.
1971 – Environmental group Greenpeace was founded.