GOOD MORNING – TODAY IS FRIDAY, July 20, the 201st day of 2018 with 164 to follow. Sunrise in the Boston area is @ 5:24 and sunset is @ 8:16. The moon is waxing. The morning stars are stars are Jupiter, Mars, Mercury & Saturn. The evening stars are Neptune, Uranus & Venus.
ON THIS DAY IN: 1801 – A 1,235 pound cheese ball was pressed at the farm of Elisha Brown, Jr. The ball of cheese was later loaded on a horse-driven wagon and presented to U.S. President Thomas Jefferson at the White House.
1810 – Colombia declared independence from Spain.
1859 – Brooklyn and New York played baseball at Fashion Park Race Course on Long Island, NY. The game marked the first time that admission had been charged for to see a ball game. It cost $.50 to get in and the players on the field did not receive a salary (until 1863).
1861 – The Congress of the Confederate States began holding sessions in Richmond, VA.
1868 – Legislation that ordered U.S. tax stamps to be placed on all cigarette packs was passed.
1871 – British Columbia joined Confederation as a Canadian province.
1881 – Sioux Indian leader Sitting Bull, a fugitive since the Battle of the Little Big Horn, surrendered to federal troops. (Montana)
1917 – The draft lottery in World War I went into operation.
1935 – NBC radio debuted “G-men.” The show was later renamed “Gangbusters.”
1942 – The first detachment of the Women’s Army Auxiliary Corps, (WACS) began basic training at Fort Des Moines, Iowa.
1944 – An attempt by a group of German officials to assassinate Adolf Hitler failed. The bomb exploded at Hitler’s Rastenburg headquarters. Hitler was only wounded.
1944 – U.S. President Roosevelt was nominated for an unprecedented fourth term of office at the Democratic National Convention in Chicago.
1947 – The National Football League (NFL) ruled that no professional team could sign a player who had college eligibility remaining.
1961 – “Stop the World, I Want to Get Off” opened in London.
1969 – Apollo 11 astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin E. Aldrin, Jr. became the first men to walk on the moon.
1974 – Turkish forces invaded Cyprus.
1976 – America’s Viking I robot spacecraft made a successful landing on Mars.
1982 – U.S. President Ronald Reagan pulled the U.S. out of comprehensive test ban negotiations indefinitely.
1985 – Treasure hunters began raising $400 million in coins and silver from the Spanish galleon “Nuestra Senora de Atocha.” The ship sank in 1622 40 miles of the coast of Key West, FL.
1992 – Vaclav Havel, the playwright who led the Velvet Revolution against communism, stepped down as president of Czechoslovakia.
1998 – Russia won a $11.2 billion loan from the International Monetary Fund to help avert the devaluation of its currency.
2003 – In India, elephants used for commercial work began wearing reflectors to avoid being hit by cars during night work.